The 24-year-old follows fellow centre Billy Twelvetrees in agreeing a new deal, with full back Rob Cook also putting pen to paper to remain in the West Country recently.
And director of rugby Nigel Davies hopes that securing the in-form midfielder's signature will persuade other squad members of the ilk of England fly-half Freddie Burns that Gloucester remains the best environment from them to progress.
"We're very pleased. Henry's been in superb form so far this season and I firmly believe he will only get better," said Davies.
"He can form a formidable midfield partnership with Billy Twelvetrees which, moving forward, will underpin Gloucester. It bodes well that, with the likes of Billy and Rob Cook already having signed, these players want to stay with Gloucester Rugby and help drive the club forward.
"When players of this quality want to sign for us, and you have to remember that it's a very competitive market out there and that they'd be coveted by any club, it speaks volumes of the ambition of the club and the environment that we've worked hard to create."
Trinder is unlikely to have been short of offers for his services given the way in which he has started the season, with the Gloucester Academy product having won a call up to England's autumn internationals squad after impressing repeatedly in club colours.
He initially missed out on a place in the England EPS and Saxons groups at the beginning of the season but was drafted into the senior set up after injuries to Manu Tuilagi and Brad Barrit.
The Swindon-born star became a first-team regular with Gloucester in 2010 and has now made more than 75 appearances since his debut in the 2007/08 season, but he spent chunks of the last campaign out injured with an ankle problem and a fractured jaw.