Jackson signed his first professional contract in May 2008 but made his European debut the season before in the 2006/7 Amlin Challenge Cup.
"It's always a big call deciding where your future lies, but with the momentum that's building around the club, I'm absolutely convinced this is the right place for me to be over the next few years," said Jackson.
"Like every player, I'm ambitious about what I want to achieve in the game, and I'm excited that Glasgow Warriors and Scottish Rugby are committed to moving the club forward on and off the pitch.
"From a player's point of view, the move to Scotstoun is an extremely positive signal about where the club is heading. It's also hugely encouraging to see good young guys like Chris, Ryan and Duncan being signed so early in the season. We've got a great group of hungry, talented players here and there's a real chance for us to push on as a group and achieve success for Glasgow Warriors."
Head coach Sean Lineen has expressed his delight at the news, saying: "It's no secret that I've been a huge fan of Ruaridh since I first clapped eyes on him playing for Robert Gordon's College five years ago, and he's come on massively in the time he's been involved with Glasgow Warriors.
"He's already shown himself capable of holding his own as a Test fly-half, and if he continues to show the same outstanding level of application, he'll go from strength to strength."