Cudmore will appear before the disciplinary committee of the National Rugby League, the body that runs the two professional leagues in France, on January 19.
The setback comes just as Cudmore was returning from a 10-week ban for stamping on Saracens flanker Jacque Burger in the first round of Heineken Cup action back on October 9.
The 22-16 win over Perpignan - a repeat of last season's Top 14 Final - was Cudmore's first game back since that suspension but he could now face another spell on the sidelines.
Cudmore's absence for Rounds 5 and 6 would be a major blow to Vern Cotter's men as the 30-year-old possesses a vast amount of European experience.
Cudmore, who has won 19 caps for his country and featured in six European games last season, has also played Heineken Cup rugby for the Scarlets and competed in the Challenge Cup with Grenoble.
He has made a total of 27 appearances in continental competition, with 17 of those coming in Europe's premier competition.
Clermont remain in contention for a place in the last eight of the Heineken Cup but they are likely to need two successive wins to pip Leinster and Racing Metro 92 to top spot in Pool 2.
The reigning French Champions currently sit second in their group, level on points with Racing and five points behind leaders Leinster.
Clermont host their French colleagues at the Stade Marcel Michelin on Friday, January 14 before traveling to Vicarage Road to take on Sarries exactly a week later.